The first phase of the EDCTP will end in 2014. We are very hopeful that there will be an EDCTP II as well as a PanACEA II. The former, we hope, will be budgeted with €1 billion to expedite the next stage of clinical trials in poverty-related diseases. For a prospective PanACEA II, €50 million would allow for an investigation of much larger trials based on the multiarm, multisite (MAMS) design. This innovative design which we are now testing in a limited 5-arm, 7-site setting will enable us to trial a multitude of drug combinations in a shorter period with fewer patients and in a more cost-eff ective manner. In the future we are aiming to get a PanACEA II with all the new compounds and combinations tried according to this principle. The importance of the MAMS study must also be stressed, not just in and of itself, but as a means of keeping the infrastructure alive after the current studies have closed. PanACEA is driven by the ambition to create a self-sustaining operation, created by the consortium but subsequently taken over by other groups. As the research portfolio expands, the infrastructure must. Equipment must be upgraded and employee retention plans put in place.